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ABIVERD FORTRESS

The famous Abiverd region of Khorosan in Middle Ages was situated in the foothills of South Turkmenistan between railway station of modem Babadurmaz and Sarahs areas. Convenient weather conditions, rich soil, handy water supply for artificial irrigation without constructing complex water reservoirs lead to great growth of crop-growing agriculture at an early ages. Eminent monuments of Copper (aeneolithic) and Bronze ages Namazgadepe, Garadepe and Altyndepe historical-archeological monuments are located here. According to the scripts in Parthian age this region created an independent administrative region under the name of Apawarktiken. In compliance with archeological and written scripts Abiverd is thought to be one of the dense populated centers in the Middle ages. One can see the first information about Abiverd from the records of Isidor Haraql about trade path which crossed the borders of Parthia state at the beginning of A.D. Characterizing the trade path crossed the teritory of modem of South Turkmenistan, Isidor Haraql also mentiones the name of Apawarktiken situated between Parthia and Margiana. The records of al-Belazuri «Kitab futuh al-buldan» and at-Tabari “Tarih ar-rasul” give the information about Abiverd during the Arab invasions. The records of Arab historian and geographer al-Makdisi and also other historical written sources include some valuable and certain information about Abiverd and its region in X century. In the first half of the XI century various events of Seljuks’ campaign from Maverenahr to Khorosan took place. Abiverd, Sarahs and Nusai were the main lands of which Seljuks took with the victory from the war with Gaznas. It is also possible to find interesting information about Abiverd region before Mongol invasions and the history of its areas from written information of life and creativeness of famous intellectual, poet Aby Sagyt Abulhayyr - Meana Baba (964-1049). The biography of Meana Baba was written in the second half of XII and at the beginning of XIII centuries by his great grandson Muhammet Minewwar. At the same time with the information connected with the biography of the poet, this collection also gives clear information about the history of region’s geography, topography of Mehne city and other events about the political history of that age. This collection mentions Sargala, Azjah, Badine, Shokan near Mehne which situated in the south-west of Abiwert region of Middle Ages and other villages. In this work of Muhammet Minewwar the name of Tejen is mentioned not as a river but as an administrative unit for the first time.